Although it is no longer a primary interest, I remain fascinated in critical questions and approaches to studying social media manipulation. While everyone is now writing about ‘bots’ and ‘trolls’, these concepts are not well understood and the research landscape (especially for social scientists) remains nascent. First, what are bots, really? What do competing definitions of the term amongst different groups of scholars tell us, and what are the ensuing challenges for policy and research? My friend Doug Guilbeault and I published a 2018 article in Policy & Internet in which we the examine some of these questions.


. Prayer-Bots and Religious Worship on Twitter: A Call for a Wider Research Agenda. Minds & Machines, 2019.

Project Open Access

. Unpacking the Ecosystem of Social Media Manipulation: A Polish Case Study. Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media, edited by Samuel Woolley and Philip Howard. Oxford University Press, 2018.

Project OUP Google Books

. What Should We Do About Political Automation? Challenges for Policy and Research. International Communication Association (Prague, May 24-28), 2018.

Project arXiv

. Current Challenges for Bot Policy and Foreign Interference. Washington, DC: Campaign Legal Centre, 2018.

Project Report