Journal Articles

An empirical, process-based case study into the development of (and the politics behind) the NetzDG.
Telecommunications Policy 45 (6), 102145, 2021.

An accessible technical primer on how automated content moderation works, and a discussion of its political promises and technical pitfalls.
Big Data & Society 7 (1), 2020.

Grounding voluntary and non-binding governance regimes for platforms in the the traditional transnational and corporate governance literatures.
Internet Policy Review 8 (2), 2019.

A first mapping of the interdisciplinary research agenda for platform governance, an overview of emerging governance modes, and a discussion some of the normative principles which promise to shape platform governance going forward.
Information, Communication & Society 22 (6), 854-871, 2019.

A review of the interdisciplinary literature on ‘bots’ and social automation, and a discussion of major limitations in existing research methods.
Policy & Internet, 2018.

More Publications

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(2020). Expanding the debate about content moderation: scholarly research agendas for the coming policy debates. Internet Policy Review 9 (4), 1-29.

Open Access

(2020). Democratic Transparency in the Platform Society. In Social Media and Democracy: The State of the Field and Prospects for Reform, edited by Nate Persily and Josh Tucker. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

PDF SocArxiv

(2020). Big Tech Hits the Diplomatic Circuit: Norm Entrepreneurship, Policy Advocacy, and Microsoft’s Cybersecurity Tech Accord. In Governing Cyberspace: Behavior, Power, and Diplomacy, edited by Dennis Broeders and Bibi van den Berg. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

PDF v1

(2019). What Can Be Done? Digital Media Policy Options for Strengthening European Democracy. Oxford, UK: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.


(2019). Prayer-Bots and Religious Worship on Twitter: A Call for a Wider Research Agenda. Minds & Machines 29 (2), 331–338.

Open Access

(2019). Cyber Conflict in Political Science: A Review of Methods and Literature. International Studies Association (Toronto, March 27-30).


(2019). Glasnost? Nine ways Facebook can make itself a better forum for free speech and democracy. Oxford, UK: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.


(2018). Unpacking the Ecosystem of Social Media Manipulation: A Polish Case Study. In Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media, edited by Samuel Woolley and Philip Howard. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

OUP Google Books

(2018). Studying Politically Vulnerable Communities Online: Ethical Dilemmas, Questions, and Solutions. ICWSM Workshop on Exploring Ethical Trade-offs in Social Media Research (Stanford, June 25).


(2018). Current Challenges for Bot Policy and Foreign Interference. Washington, DC: Campaign Legal Centre.



Magazine Articles & Reviews

Opinions & Blogs

  • European Security Officials Double Down on Automated Moderation and Client-Side Scanning. Lawfare, June 2022.
  • As Platforms Rely Less on Human Content Moderators, What’s at Stake? CIGI Online, March 2020.
  • Here is what policymakers can do for Europe’s digital media ecosystem. The Conversation, November 2019 (with Rasmus Nielsen and Madeleine de Cock Buning).
  • The Shifting Definition of Platform Governance. CIGI Online, October 2019.
  • Here’s how Mark Zuckerberg can save Facebook from itself. Wired (UK), March 2019 (with Danaë Metaxa).
  • Twitter has a serious ‘bot problem,’ and Wikipedia might have the solution. Quartz, October 2017.
  • Facebook could tell us how Russia interfered in our elections. Why won’t it? Washington Post, May 2017 (with Phil Howard).
  • On the Internet, Nobody Knows That You’re A Russian Bot. NetPolitics, March 2017.
  • ‘The security risk our connected devices pose urgently needs a policy response’ OpenCanada, November 2016.
  • A conversation about quantum computing, R&D, and state power. World Politics Review, October 2016 (with Taylor Owen).